What is the Meaning & Definition of nation

A nation (a word which comes from the latin and means "birth") is a human community with certain shared cultural characteristics and that they often share the same territory and State. A nation is also a political conception, understood as the subject in which resides the sovereignty of a State. In the story, the concept as today understand it it was born at the end of the 18th century, when it began the contemporary age and began to develop the first formulations of what is a nation and how it takes place in political movements. These studies are associated with the periods of enlightenment and, more precisely, with the French Revolution and then the American.
It is often difficult to define the characteristics that constitute a nation as such, but are based on the basis that members of one share the same consciousness constitute itself as a body politic differed from others from their cultural similarities. In general, these coincidences can be ethnic, linguistic, religious, traditional or historical. And this membership is added sometimes to a same territory.
This set of coincidences and awareness common respect of political unity is commonly called national identity. This national identity is fundamental to achieve the cohesion of the components of these people, since it is so distinctive and representative as the own national symbols. It is worth noting that the migratory phenomena of today have driven both the integration of individuals of a nation within other peoples as the contrasting trend accumulation in neighborhoods or specific areas in a city or region, almost as a safeguard of the cultural identity of the nation.
Therefore, the concept of nation is complex and sometimes the criteria differ to distinguish it as such. For example, differences between the pronunciations or dialects can be two people as belonging to different Nations. Similarly, it is common that two individuals living in different geographical locations can be considered as members of one nation.
He is often confused with the term 'nation' with the 'State' or even the idea of an ethnic, cultural or linguistic group even though it does not have an ethical support. This difference is perceived to understand that some Nations, such as the Gypsy, do not have a State of their own (Organization with defined institutions and borders). As a counterpart, are recognized multinational States such as Bolivia in America, the India in Asia or South Africa in the African continent.
There are different types of nation, for example, the liberal, the romantic, the Socialist, the fascist and National Socialist. Most of the current Nations of America and Europe are governed with liberal models, in the context of Republican systems with different nuances of each village. Socialist Nations that persist in the 21st century include China, Cuba and Viet Nam, among others. The fascist and national socialist models became extinct during the second world war. In certain specific cases, it is interesting to note that the national identity of some peoples has motivated the existence of very specific types of Nations and difficult definition. Thus, the tuareg nation persists with their customs and language in Northwest Africa, located in various States of that region. A similar consideration can be said of the aymara nation, in the Highlands, as well as the Eskimo nation area in the icy regions of the Arctic. In these cases, perfectly warns the presence of shared cultural features which allow individuals of these peoples recognize each other as fellow nationals, although there are currently no national identification States tuareg, aymara or Eskimo.