What is the Meaning & Definition of pneumonia

Pneumonia is an infectious disease affecting the lung, and may occur in one or both simultaneously. Sometimes it is also called pneumonia, although the correct term is pneumonia. The germs reach lung airway to be inhaled or from the pharynx by a mechanism of reflux in elderly, restrain for inbed or unconscious patients. Airway has several defense mechanisms that protect the lungs, at the nose level form of the turbinates and nasal hairs provide a first barrier type filter, the trachea and the bronchi are lined by cells having villi that make a sweeping upward motion to remove secretions and germs, the bronchial tree in turn is equipped with an important reflection such as cough which expels any body quickly strange airway, nasal level equivalent is sneezing. In addition to this in the respiratory tract are present specialized cells of the immune system that are able to literally "swallow" microorganisms in a process known as phagocytosis.
When these barriers are breached by some germ, or the immune system is weakened, it is possible that these reach the alveoli of the lung that are small air spaces and colonize them thus giving rise to pneumonia.
The main manifestations of this disease are cough, fever, malaise and breathlessness, the latter is recognized by the fact that the patient is tired, cannot speak, and makes a large number of breaths per minute. Symptoms vary depending on the type of causal agent, frequent pneumonias are viral origin in which predominate the malaise, not very high fever and cough that tends to be dry, the main producers of pneumonia virus is the Influenza Virus and Adenovirus.
Bacterial pneumonias are more complicated, and in addition to these nuisances is characteristic that cough is accompanied by abundant secretion of color green or yellow, high fever with chills and sweating. The bacteria that most often cause pneumonia are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae, in people with diabetes or weakened can find other germs such as Legionella and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
In the case of people who are hospitalized for other reasons it is possible that the airway is colonized by bacteria in the hospital environment producing what is known as a hospital-acquired pneumonia, the importance of this fact is that these infections occur with very aggressive bacteria and that are resistant to multiple antibiotics, these cases have treatment protocols other than pneumonia acquired in the community.
Cough with blood, known as hemoptysis, is a rare symptom and is associated with respiratory infections caused by the producer of the tuberculosis germ. For many years it fell markedly tuberculosis globally, today has increased the number of cases due to the increase of immunosuppressed patients like in those infected by the Virus of human immunodeficiency (HIV).
The diagnosis of this infection is performed to examine the patient, auscultation of the lungs is very characteristic, blood studies help to confirm that it is an infectious problem and identify if the causative agent is a virus or a bacterium, the chest x-ray confirms the diagnosis and allows to identify the degree of affection as well as if there is commitment to the bronchi the pattern of the images obtained also allows identifying the possible causative. The radiological study also allows you to identify one of the major complications of pneumonia such as pleural effusion, which will have a different management.
Pneumonia is a serious illness that requires treatment and surveillance, the elderly, small children and weakened people is an important cause of death. Many elderly patients who suffer a fracture of the femur by a fall and that do not regain the March often die as a result of pneumonia.
The treatment of this condition depends on the causative organism, virus infections do not require the use of antibiotics and the treatment is to relieve symptoms and prevent complications. Bacterial pneumonias deserve antibiotics that the causal agent, given the severity of this condition will depend on treatment of pneumonia should be performed with hospitalized.